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Recurrence or persistent inflammatory lesions

Post–Endodontic Treatment Complications

Possible etiologies include inadequate root canal filling, instrumentation perforation of the outer root surface, unusual morphology of the root canal, unusual accessory canal, or root fracture

Alveolar osteitis

Alveolar osteitis (‘dry’ socket) is by far the most frequent painful complication of extractions. It is not really an infection but leads to superficial bacterial contamination of exposed bone and can progress to osteomyelitis, though extremely uncommonly. Osteitis simply means inflamed bone, not infection. Alveolar osteitis develops after 1%–2% of extractions, more frequently for lower-third molar extractions.


Dry socket. Typical appearances of chronic alveolar osteitis

Sequestration in a severe dry socket. Almost the whole of the lamina dura and attached trabeculae have become necrotic, forming a sequestrum. Healing is delayed while the sequestrum remains in place. Most dry sockets are not associated with sequestration, or with only small sequestra.

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